In most of the object-oriented languages access modifiers are used to limit the access to the variables and functions of a class. Most of the languages use three types of access modifiers, they are - private, public and protected.
Just like any other object oriented programming language, access to variables or functions can also be limited in python using the access modifiers. Python makes the use of underscores to specify the access modifier for a specific data member and member function in a class.
Access modifiers play an important role to protect the data from unauthorized access as well as protecting it from getting manipulated. When inheritance is implemented there is a huge risk for the data to get destroyed(manipulated) due to transfer of unwanted data from the parent class to the child class. Therefore, it is very important to provide the right access modifiers for different data members and member functions depending upon the requirements.
There are 3 types of access modifiers for a class in Python. These access modifiers define how the members of the class can be accessed. Of course, any member of a class is accessible inside any member function of that same class. Moving ahead to the type of access modifiers, they are:
The members declared as Public are accessible from outside the Class through an object of the class.
The members declared as Protected are accessible from outside the class but only in a class derived from it that is in the child or subclass.
These members are only accessible from within the class. No outside Access is allowed.
In this section we will provide some basic code examples for each type of access modifier.
By default, all the variables and member functions of a class are
public in a python program.
# defining a class Employee class Employee: # constructor def __init__(self, name, sal): self.name = name; self.sal = sal;
All the member variables of the class in the above code will be by default
public, hence we can access them as follows:
>>> emp = Employee("Ironman", 999000); >>> emp.sal; 999000
According to Python convention adding a prefix
_(single underscore) to a variable name makes it
protected. Yes, no additional keyword required.
# defining a class Employee class Employee: # constructor def __init__(self, name, sal): self._name = name; # protected attribute self._sal = sal; # protected attribute
In the code above we have made the class variables name and sal
protected by adding an
_(underscore) as a prefix, so now we can access them as follows:
>>> emp = Employee("Captain", 10000); >>> emp._sal; 10000
Similarly if there is a child class extending the class
Employee then it can also access the protected member variables of the class
Employee. Let's have an example:
# defining a child class class HR(Employee): # member function task def task(self): print ("We manage Employees")
Now let's try to access protected member variable of class
Employee from the class
>>> hrEmp = HR("Captain", 10000); >>> hrEmp._sal; 10000 >>> hrEmp.task(); We manage Employees
While the addition of prefix
__(double underscore) results in a member variable or function becoming
# defining class Employee class Employee: def __init__(self, name, sal): self.__name = name; # private attribute self.__sal = sal; # private attribute
If we want to access the private member variable, we will get an error.
>>> emp = Employee("Bill", 10000); >>> emp.__sal;
AttributeError: 'employee' object has no attribute '__sal'
Now that we have seen each access modifier in separate examples, now let's combine all that we have learned till now in one example:
# define parent class Company class Company: # constructor def __init__(self, name, proj): self.name = name # name(name of company) is public self._proj = proj # proj(current project) is protected # public function to show the details def show(self): print("The code of the company is = ",self.ccode) # define child class Emp class Emp(Company): # constructor def __init__(self, eName, sal, cName, proj): # calling parent class constructor Company.__init__(self, cName, proj) self.name = eName # public member variable self.__sal = sal # private member variable # public function to show salary details def show_sal(self): print("The salary of ",self.name," is ",self.__sal,) # creating instance of Company class c = Company("Stark Industries", "Mark 4") # creating instance of Employee class e = Emp("Steve", 9999999, c.name, c._proj) print("Welcome to ", c.name) print("Here ", e.name," is working on ",e._proj) # only the instance itself can change the __sal variable # and to show the value we have created a public function show_sal() e.show_sal()
Now the code above show the correct usage of
protected member variables and methods. You can try and change a few things a run the program to see what error those changes result into.